Monthly Archives: July 2014

Important scaling techniques

The scaling techniques are used in the context of research more importantly in relation to social or business research.

The traits of a person or features of any particular thing involve a vivid description thus constituting the rating scale. While using rating scale, the object is judged in absolute terms against any specific criteria like judging the properties of objects without any regard to other same objects.

Ratings could take forms like:

  • Like-dislike
  • Above average
  • Average
  • Below average
  • Very much
  • Somewhat
  • Neutral
  • Dislike somewhat
  • Dislike very much
  • Excellent
  • Good
  • Average

No specific is there in regard whether to use a two-point scale or three points or also scale with no points. Generally, three to seven points’ scales are being used for the only reason that more points on a scale gives an opportunity for greater sensitivity of measurement.

Rating scale can be classified as:

The graphic rating scale

The itemized rating scale.


What role does values play in the research process has become a topic of concern?

The following are the areas around which the ethical issues revolve:

How should the people be treated on whom the research is conducted? Should such activities be designed where the researcher should involve the respondents?

The role of professional associations comes in the foreplay like American Academy of Management (AOM) and the Market Research Society (MRS), having formulated on behalf of their members.

Statements of professional principles could be could be easily accessed from the internet. The way ethical issues have been dealt within the social sciences by Social Research Association (SRA), the British Sociological Association (BSA) and the American Psychological Association (APA).

Writers differ in their opinion about ethical concerns. The main points in the debate do not seem to get carry forward to a larger extent. The ethical issues that were raised during the 1960s continue even today. Extreme cases of individuals or organisations not going by ethical norms are associated with specific research methods lie disguised observation and also the use of deception in experiments. This implies that ethical concerns are contained in few methods and not others. It could be taken that other methods like overt ethnography and questionnaires are aloof from ethical problems


It is case study analysis that aims to produce an in-depth examination of a single case in regard to which they engage in a theoretical analysis. The main issue in which the researcher engages is the quality of the theoretical reasoning.

However, a case study design is not every time linked with an inductive approach. Case studies could be both associated with both theory generation and theory testing. Few researchers see case study as a means of refining or challenging the existing theories rather to work on bringing out new theories or concepts case study can play an important role in the testing of hypotheses as it can conduct a prospective case study design.

A new proposal has been suggested by developing hypotheses that relates to an ongoing process which are to be tested in future by the collection of qualitative data allowing the researcher to determine if the hypothesised patterns relate to the findings or not.